Hardiness Zone

Glossary of Terms

Glossery

Here is where you can strengthen your terminology and learn everything you need about taking care of your plants.

Acidic Soil is soil with a PH level less than 7.

Alkaline Soil is soil with a PH level above 7.

Annual is a plant that completes its life cycle from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies.

Bare root is a technique of arboriculture whereby a plant is removed from soil in a dormant state, from which it can more rapidly acclimate to new soil conditions. Bare root stock should be planted within 48 hours of receipt for optimal results.

Budded is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site. The small bulb like projection coming out from the yeast cell is called a bud.

Bulb is a a rounded underground storage organ present in some plants, notably those of the lily family, consisting of a short stem surrounded by fleshy scale leaves or leaf bases, lying dormant over winter.

Bush/Shrub is a small- to medium-sized perennial woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, less than 6 m-10 m tall. Small shrubs, less than 2 m tall are sometimes termed subshrubs.

Coniferous are mostly evergreen trees and shrubs having usually needle-shaped or scalelike leaves and including forms (such as pines) with true cones and others (such as yews) with an arillate fruit.

Cultivate is to prepare land for the raising of crops or to raise or assist the growth of crops by tilling the field or by labor and care.

Deciduous  "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.

Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and physical activity are temporarily stopped. This minimizes metabolic activity and therefore helps an organism to conserve energy. Dormancy tends to be closely associated with environmental conditions.

Edible Plants are plants with parts that are safely edible.

Evergreen  is a plant that has leaves throughout the year that are always green. This is true even if the plant retains its foliage only in warm climates. There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs.

Fertilizer is any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. 

Flowering Tree is a tree that flowers. They make excellent accents when planted alone; this is a good use for them on small lots. ... Many flowering trees offer all-season interest, with showy spring flowers, green or purple-bronze leaves in summer, vividly colored leaves in fall, and bright fruit or attractive bark in fall or winter.

Fruit Tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term 'fruit tree' is limited to those that provide fruit for human food.

Grafted or graftage is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called the scion while the lower part is called the rootstock. 

Groundcover is any plant that grows over an area of ground. Groundcover provides protection of the topsoil from erosion and drought. In an ecosystem, the ground cover forms the layer of vegetation below the shrub layer known as the herbaceous layer.

Hardiness zone is a geographic area defined to encompass a certain range of climatic conditions relevant to plant growth and survival.

Hedge is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.

Hilling In, earthing up or ridging is the technique in agriculture and horticulture of piling soil up around the base of a plant. It can be done by hand (usually using a hoe), or with powered machinery, typically a tractor attachment.

Loamy Soil is a mixture of soil that is the ideal plant-growing medium. It is actually a combination soil, normally equal parts of clay, silt, and sand, which gives the benefits of each with few of the disadvantages.

Mulch   is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil. Reasons for applying mulch include conservation of soil moisture, improving fertility and health of the soil, reducing weed growth and enhancing the visual appeal of the area.

Nut Tree is a tree that produces nuts. They can be a great addition to your edible landscape. Like other crop-bearing trees, many nut trees start to yield fruit in 3-5 years. Many nut trees are slow-growing and require more space than is available in urban settings.

Perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. 

Prune is a horticultural and silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots. Reasons to prune plants include deadwood removal, shaping (by controlling or redirecting growth), improving or sustaining health, reducing risk from falling branches, preparing nursery specimens for transplanting, and both harvesting and increasing the yield or quality of flowers and fruits.

Root Collar is that part of a root system from which a stem arises. Since roots and stems have quite different vascular anatomies, major vascular changes take place at this point.

Root System The root system of a plant constantly provides the stems and leaves with water and dissolved minerals. In order to accomplish this the roots must grow into new regions of the soil. The growth and metabolism of the plant root system is supported by the process of photosynthesis occurring in the leaves.

Rooted Cutting is a portion of plant root cut that is used for plant propagation. In this method of plant propagation, the portion of root is cut from a parent plant (often called a mother plant), placed in a growing medium, and then left to grow its own system of roots and stems.

Sapling is a young tree with a slender trunk.

Seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.

Silty Soil is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil or as sediment mixed in suspension with water and soil in a body of water such as a river. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body, like mudflows from landslides.

Shade Tree is a large tree whose primary role is to provide shade in the surrounding environment due to its spreading canopy and crown, where it may give shelter from sunlight in the heat of the summer for people who seek recreational needs in urban parks and house yards, and thus, also protecting them from the sun's harmful UV rays and sunburns. Therefore, some shade trees may be grown specifically for the comfort of the population due to their convenient shelter.

Shrub/Bush is a small- to medium-sized perennial woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, less than 6 m-10 m tall. Small shrubs, less than 2 m tall are sometimes termed subshrubs.

Weeding is to remove unwanted plants from an area of ground or the plants cultivated in it.

Whip is a slender, unbranched shoot or plant. This term is used in forestry to refer to unbranched young tree seedlings of approximately 0.5-1.0 m (1 ft 7 in-3 ft 3 in) in height and 2–3 years old, that have been grown for planting out.